Website References

* Based on patient perception regarding regarding leaking and messiness3.
  1. Sturdee DW, Panay N, on behalf of the International Menopause Society Writing Group. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. Climacteric 2010;13:509-522.
  2. Portman DJ, Gass MLS, on behalf of the Vulvovaginal Atrophy Terminology Consensus Conference Panel. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: new terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health and The North American Menopause Society. Menopause 2014;21(10):DOI: 10.1097/gme.0000000000000329
  3. Minkin MJ, Maamari R, Reiter S. Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy: evaluation of treatment with local estrogen therapy. Int J Women’s Health 2014;6:281-288.
  4. Johnston S. Urogenital Concerns. JOGC 2006:S33-S42
  5. Johnston SL. The Recognition and Management of Atrophic Vaginitis. Geriatrics & Aging 2002;5(7):9-15
  6. Reference available on request
  7. Simon J, Nachtigall L, Gut R, et al. Effective treatment of vaginal atrophy with an ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablet. Obs & Gynecol 2008;112(5):1053-1060
  8. Reference available on request
  9. Dugal R, Hesla K, Sørdal T, et al. Comparison of usefulness of estradiol vaginal tablets and estriol vagitories for the treatment of vaginal atrophy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2000;79(4):293-297.
  10. Minkin MJ, Maamari R, Reiter S. Improved compliance and patient satisfaction with estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women previously treated with another local estrogen therapy. Int J Women’s Health 2013;5:133-139.
  11. Portman D, Shulman L, Yeaw J, et al. One-year treatment persistence with local estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women diagnosed as having vaginal atrophy. Menopause 2015;22(11):1-7.
  12. Reference available on request
  13. UpToDate. Patient education: Vaginal dryness (Beyond the Basics) [online] Dec 2016 [cited] February 2017; Available from URL:
  14. NAMS. Position Statement. Management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy: 2013 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause 2013;20(9):888-902
  15. Eugster-Hausmann M, Waitzinger J, Lehnick D. Minimized estradiol absorption with ultra-low-dose 10 μg 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets. Climacteric 2010;13:219-227
  16. Guidozzi F, Thomas C, Smith T, et al. CLarifying vaginal atrophy’s impact On SEx and Relationships (CLOSER) survey in South Africa. Climacteric 2017;20(1):49-54.
  17. Baber RJ, Panay N, Fenton A the IMS Writing Group. 2016 IMS Recommendations on women's midlife health and menopause hormone therapy. Climacteric 2016;19(2):109-150. 107448 09/2016. ZA1611550211 10/2016.
  18. Weissmann-Brenner A, Bayevsky T, Yoles I. Compliance to vaginal treatment --tablets versus cream: a retrospective 9 years study. Menopause 2017;24(1):73-76.
  19. Mattsson LA, Ericsson A, Bøgelund M, et al. Women's preferences toward attributes of local estrogen therapy for the treatment of vaginal atrophy. Maturitas 2013;74:259-263.

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